Wednesday, May 29, 2024
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Ceara has almost unique conditions due to a pattern of several factors. The wind situation is depending on global as well as on local conditions. Especially the north east of brazil even more specific the area between Prea and Camocim ts considered having the highest number and percentage of wind days, the strongest wind and the highest possibility of wind.

wind statistic

Because the Coriolis force act to the right of the flow (in the Northern Hemisphere), the flow around the 3-cells is deflected.  This gives rise to the three main wind belts in each hemisphere at the surface:

· The easterly trade winds in the tropics
· The prevailing westerlies
· The polar easterlies

The doldrums are the region near the equator where the trade winds from each hemisphere meet. This is also where you find the intertropical convergence zone.  It is characterized by hot, humid weather with light winds, major tropical rain forests found in this zone. Migrates north in January and south in July.

Horse latitudes:
The horse latitudes are the region between the trade winds and the prevailing westerlies.  In this region the winds are often light or calm, and were so-named because ships would often half to throw their horses overboard due to lack of feed and water.

global circulation pressure

 Pressure belts:

» Equatorial low:

The rising of warm air heated at the Equator causes an area of low pressure called Equatorial Low. As the air rises, creates clouds and precipitation.

» Subtropical high:

At the subtropics the air cools and descends creating areas of high pressure with clear skies and little precipitation, called the Subtropical High. The descending air is warm   and dry, and produces deserts in these regions.

» Subpolar low:

A belt of low pressure associated with the polar front.

» Polar high:

A high pressure associated with the cold, dense air of the polar regions.

Nearby the tropics, 23.5° degrees of latitude of the equator removed, it sinks to the ground again. The air sinking from above presses the lying on the ground and produces a hot dry high pressure area.Passatwinde Querschnitt
This high pressure belt around the earth is known as horse breadths or the subtropical calms. In those regions we have sunny and dry weather. The dry air and the permanent sunshine convert the landscape to deserts and savannas.
So we have a zone of high air pressure at the tropics and low air pressure at the equator. As high pressure and low pressure strive themselves to compensate, the air masses stream on both sides of the equator from the tropics toward the equator and close the cycle of the wind circulation. These evenly blowing winds are called trade winds.

The trade winds coming from the south get turned away to the left and the north coming to the right. Through this it seems that they come on the northern hemisphere from the northeast and on the southern hemisphere from the southeast. Therefore they are called "northeast trade wind" or "southeast trade wind" or also "trade winds".

The main reason for the diversion of the winds is the turn of the earth around its own axis. At the equator the earth's surface turns much faster to the east than in our breadths or to the poles. Out of this differently fast movement results the deflected strength of the earth rotation called "coriolis force".

trade winds

In the tropics dominate high temperatures the whole year about. It's the strong vertical solar radiation at the equator that makes big quantities of damp warm air climbing sub cloud formation. Since the warm air increases in the height, it leaves an area of a low pressure on the ground. This process happens around the equator everywhere. Therefore we find a zone with low air pressure around the equator called the "equatorial low pressure belt". The consequence: high atmospheric humidity and precipitations.
In the height the ascending air is pushed away to the north and the south.

The air next to the ground gets warmed up by the sunshine and rises. This effect in the atmosphere is described as thermal.
The intensity of the thermal depends on the solar radiation, the condition of the ground, the atmospheric humidity and the radiation angle. So e.g. a dry sand dune heats up more strongly than possible other land forms and the existing wind system can get reinforced.

jet stream

An other factor with bid influenze on the tradewinds and global weather and wind systems is the jet stream.

Pressure systems work differently in the southern and northern hemisphere. The differnce is in the southern hemisphere they turn counter clockwise.

wind pressure

During the year and the seasons Ceara faces different distributions of pressure systems.

wind high season wind low season

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